米国の財務省にあるFinancial Crime Enforcemnt Networkを教えてもらった。そこからオーストラリアが2011年に出した組織犯罪調査報告書がつながる。太平洋島嶼国ではないく日本の暴力団の動きが書いてあり興味深い。
FinCENの中に yakuza の表示がある２つの文書がある。
一つは1996年に出版された FinCEN Advisory Vol. 1, Issue 4 である。
III. RECENT TRENDS AMONG FATF MEMBERS
A. The Principal Sources of Illegal Proceeds
11. Organised crime continues to be responsible for a large proportion of the dirty money flowing through financial channels. The Italian Mafia, the Japanese yakuza, the Colombian cartels, Russian and Eastern European criminal enterprises, American ethnic gangs, and other, similarly structured groups are involved in a wide range of criminal activities. In addition to drug trafficking, these enterprises generate funds from loan sharking, illegal gambling, fraud, embezzlement, extortion, prostitution, illegal trafficking in arms and human beings, and a host of other offences. Frequently, they maintain extensive holdings in legitimate businesses which can be manipulated both to cloak and to invest illegally generated funds.
D. The Situation in Non-FATF Members
53. Drug trafficking has been identified as one of the principal sources of illegal proceeds in the Asian region. In the Golden Crescent (Afghanistan and Pakistan) and Golden Triangle (Myanmar, Laos and Thailand), Asia contains the world’s most significant areas of opium production. The other primary source of illegal wealth is financial crime. Smuggling, arms trafficking and corruption were also cited as less significant sources.
54. Not surprisingly, organised crime figures prominently in all of these activities. The Japanese yakuza is one of the world’s most prominent and profitable criminal organisations. Evidence indicates that the yakuza is investing in assets in various Asian and Pacific countries. In addition, overseas Chinese organised crime groups are engaged in criminal enterprises in Asia and elsewhere in the world. There are also terrorist groups in India using crime to fund their operations. And there are signs that Russian criminal enterprises are extending into East and South East Asia, supplying Russian prostitutes, buying real estate and becoming involved in gambling operations.
55. Among the money laundering techniques most frequently employed in the Asian region are: currency smuggling across national borders; the use of shell corporations; the use of bearer instruments; the use of wire transfers; the use of remittance services; the purchase of luxury items and real estate; false invoicing; laundering through casinos; and laundering through securities transactions.
On July 24, 2011, President Obama signed E.O. 13581, “Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations,” imposing sanctions against significant transnational criminal organizations that threaten the U.S. national security, foreign policy, or economy. My Treasury Department colleagues within the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) administer these provisions under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act on the basis of the President’s declaration of a national emergency. In the annex of E.O. 13581, the President identified and imposed sanctions on four significant organizations: the Brothers’ Circle (a.k.a. Moscow Center), the Camorra, the Yakuza, and Los Zetas. Let me note that the Australian Crime Commission mentions some of these entities in its 2011 report on “Organised Crime in Australia.” Going forward, the Treasury Department will pursue derivative designations of the four groups, and seek to identify additional transnational criminal organizations, as well as engage with foreign partners and with financial institutions in efforts to combat transnational organized crime.
もう一つ上記のJAMES H. FREIS, JR が引用している豪州の犯罪報告書もメモしておきたい。
ここにも yakuza の言葉が３回出てくる。
ORGANISED CRIME GROUPS EXPLOIT ECONOMIC ADVERSITY
There is litlle evidence that organised crime groups suffered significantly during the global economic crisis—indeed, there is convincing evidence that they have benefited considerably from the economic downturn by infiltratig legimate business sectors.
For example, the yakuza allegedly increased its presence in the Japanese consumer nance sector by providing nance (at a cost) when lending ins tu ons became nancially unviable after the Japanese Government tightened lending restrictions. Similarly, during the 1997 Asian financial crisis, cashed-up Chinese organised crime groups made significant purchases in the Hong Kong property market.
TRADITIONAL HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURES
Most high-threat criminal enterprises actively seek to insulate their criminal activi es by intermingling legitimate and illegal interests. Historical organised crime structures relied on hierarchical control within tight ethnic or cultural security arrangements. They often used a corporate business model similar to
those of the legitimate business sector, involving strategic planning, recruitment of specialised expertise, internal security and risk management. Interna onally, traditional hierarchies, typified by the Sicilian Ma a or the yakuza in Japan, remain resilient and effective in their specific markets. However, other transna onal criminal enterprises have varied tradi onal hierarchical command and control structures by moving to adaptable and more exible structures, including in some cases franchise models.17
Traditional hierarchical organised criminal groups are increasingly responding to changing market dynamics and law enforcement interdiction. They are offserring the disadvantages inherent in rigid and sometimes brittle hierarchical command structures through networked or hybrid structures and innovative use of informa on and communica ons technologies.
SHIFT IN ECONOMIC POWER
The global economic crisis, and the resultant focus on debt levels and aws in the regulatory framework in the US and Europe, has fuelled discussions about a gradual shift in global economic power to the Asia-Paci c region, particularly the People’s republic of China (PRC) and India. It is possible that Russia, Brazil, Korea and Indonesia will also emerge (or re-emerge) as significant powers in decades to come. Notably, several of these countries are already focal points for transna onal organised crime, either as source countries for illicit commodi es or as locations where traficking routes for illicit commodities intersect, known as transhipment nodes.